By Nopia Sari
Mentor : Joni Rollis
Indonesia is multicultural country which is rich of culture. Every region and ethnic in Indonesia has different cultures. Culture according E.B Taylor is whole complex that involve knowledge, faith, arts, morals, sciences, laws, manners, other skills also habits which are obtained by human as member of society. (Alo Liliweri, 2009). Some of cultural diversity in Indonesia was derived from ancestor’s heritage and some are derived from intercultural interactions. The multicultural condition are created from interaction to the foreign cultures such as Indonesian temples which are objectification between original Indonesian arts and Hindu-Buddhist arts at India, Koko-shirt which is the product of cultural interaction between traditional clothes of Tionghoa and Indonesian Muslims. The Dangdut music that was created from unification of Indonesian traditional music and Indian music. Although these cultures are not Indonesian original cultures that inherited by ancestors purely, but the product of cultural mixing. Indonesian people can accept it as Indonesian cultures.
Cultures that created from interaction between original cultures and foreign cultures are openness form of society to the foreign cultures. Form of interactions culture product are acculturation and assimilation. Acculturation is a state of foreign culture elements into their own cultures, The acceptance of foreign culture elements are adapted to their own culture, so that becoming mixed cultures that has not lost its original cultural characteristics. Meanwhile assimilation is assimilating between two cultures which both release each original identity then bring forth a new culture. (Bambang Rustanto, 2015). The example of acculturation product on clothes is modern Batik which is influenced by contemporary clothes design on Europe, while Koko-shirt which is the assimilation product between Tionghoa clothes and Indonesia Muslims clothes.
So, what the fundamental differences from both of cultural mixing?
The fundamental difference between acculturation and assimilation is the mixing effect to the original culture. On acculturation, each cultures preserves the originality of their cultures. Whereas on assimilation, both of cultures merge become one new. These two types are influence original culture. But there some differences between acculturation and assimilation. On acculturation, even the original cultures are influenced by foreign culture, but the elements of original culture still maintained and visible as on modern Batik. The motif that applied is Indonesian Batik original motifs intactly also maintained the originality, using province Batik motifs in Indonesia then applied to contemporary clothes design. Other example on acculturation Hindu-Buddhist into archipelago. Although in the Hindu-Buddhist era of the archipelago is strongly influenced by Hindu-Buddhist culture, but the closed caste system that exist in India was not adopted by our society, our society still maintains the culture of gotong royong which has become local genius of Indonesian nation at that time. While in assimilation, original culture merged with foreign culture accompanied by loss of characteristic of original culture, there was a whole change in original culture into new culture. As an example, Indonesian traditional music as an original culture gets influence from Indian music then bring forth a new genre of music that is Dangdut. Dangdut does not preserve the originality of Indonesian traditional music.
The process of foreign culture acceptance from these two types is also different. In acculturation, the process can run very fast or slow depends on the local people’s perception against foreign culture. If it through coercion way, then acculturation takes a relatively long time. But if the it through the peace way, acculturation will take place relatively faster. In addition assimilation, the cultural interaction took place intensively and in a very long time until finally the original culture lost its elements. As for example in the acculturation of modern Batik. Batik that was only a traditional fabric or traditional custom. Immediately after the batik was announce officially as world cultural heritage of Indonesia, apparently designs of contemporary clothing that apply Batik motifs, its use was relatively rapidly widespread in various circles.
Both acculturation and assimilation, bring forth cultural diversity in Indonesia. It shows the form of cultural tolerance, as well as the openness of Indonesian society against new culture, the desire to move forward and adapt to the world community. If cultural assimilation still retains the original culture after being influenced, while assimilation replaces the original culture into a new culture. From both of them, the local community wisdom is needed to select the incoming of foreign cultures which are not contradict with the local norms and local customs. Cultural mixing is essentially a form of effort to reduce the differences between individuals or groups to achieve an agreement and mutual harmony.
Liliweri, Alo, M.S. 2009. “Prasangka & Konflik :Komunikasi Lintas Budaya Masyarakat Multikultur”. Yogyakarta: PT.LKIS Prrinting Cemerlang.
Rustanto, Bambang, M.Hum. 2015. “Masyarakat Multikultur di Indonesia”. Bandung : PT.Remaja Rosdakarya Offset.
http://www.zonasiswa.com/2015/09/asimilasi-budaya-pengertian-proses.html. “Asimilasi Budaya”. was accesed on September 18th 2017.