By: Dziky Kurniawan
Mentor: Fiky Firmansyah
Martial arts have become a culture in society, the martial arts consist of the words martial and self. According to Indonesian Dictionary “Martial (bela) means keeping well; taking care and maintain. Whereas self-means one; or body “(KBBI). So we can conclude that martial arts are methods and actions to safeguard, nurture and defend either itself or others. As the time goes by the martial arts grew and increase, thus making the martial arts itself as a culture that inherent in the community. Martial arts also have a role in contributing to the development of culture in society. The martial function, in general, is to protect ourselves from the attacks from others by a structured method or way. There are many martial arts in the world such as Taekwondo and Pencak Silat. If seen in general Taekwondo and Pencak Silat is a popular martial art and much studied by people in the world, but which one is better Taekwondo or Pencak Silat?
One of the most popular martial arts is Taekwondo, Taekwondo is a martial art originating in Korea, Taekwondo has a level marked by the color of the belt worn by its fighter, “each belt level has different training materials and it is a continuous exercise material” ( Devi Tirtawirya p.206). Besides that Taekwondo also become one of the sports that competed in the Olympics. Taekwondo itself comes from the Korean language which can literally be interpreted as follows: “Tae means to attack using the foot, Kwon means to hit or attack by hand, and Do means discipline or art” (Devi Tirtawirya p.200). So Taekwondo means martial arts that used the feet and hands with high discipline. In Korea itself, Taekwondo has become a national sport, even now in Indonesia, not a few people that study Taekwondo and now it has many , places to learn Taekwondo.
Just like in Korea, Indonesia also has very popular martial art named Pencak Silat, Pencak Silat itself is a martial arts that inheritance of the ancestors of Indonesia that has become a national culture. According to the Indonesian dictionary, Pencak silat means, “the game/skill in defending yourself by fending off, attacking and defending with weapons and without weapons” (KBBI). In Pencak Silat, not only focused on strength but also on speed and agility. “Each region has its own distinctive martial arts and different from other regions, resulting in a variety of martial arts” (Agung Nugroho p.3), as in West Java is famous for the Cimande, Central Java with Merpati Putih and in East Java known as the Perisai Diri. Currently, Pencak Silat has grown and many countries in Asia especially that who study Pencak silat like in Vietnam, Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, and Singapore.
For the development of Taekwondo itself “on May 28, 1973, founded The World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), and now has 156 states member’s, Taekwondo has been practiced by over 50 million people worldwide, and the number is still growing as develops of Taekwondo which is more advanced and popular, until it reached Indonesia and developed around 1970 “(Devi Tirtawirya p.199). While in the same year in 1973, “Pencak Silat has been developed in Asian countries, Europe, Australia, Middle East and Africa, and America, therefore IPSI (Indonesian Pencak Silat Association) continuously conducting training. To carry out the training, IPSI started the coaching with a three-state Pencak silat party from April 25-26, 1980, which was followed by the state; Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore as the host. on 6-8 August 1982 held the first invitation of Pencak Silat, followed by the state; Netherlands, Singapore, Malaysia, West Germany, America, Australia and Indonesia “(Agung Nugroho p.12).
As we know Taekwondo and Pencak Silat is a branch of martial arts and both are originally from Asia, from both martial arts both have the same goal that is how to defend themselves from attacks that can occur anytime in the community. But in addition, in the martial art also has a level of Taekwondo or Pencak Silat, for Taekwondo tiers marked with different belt colors. While in Pencak Silat, the level of each fighter is marked with a skill such as moment 1 (level 1). In Taekwondo, there are many terms used such as, “momtong jireugi punch to the middle (stomach) and eolgol jireugi punch up (head)”. also in Pencak Silat, there are several terms used such as sweeping and cutting, locking, step and much more.
Although Taekwondo and Pencak Silat are martial arts, both have differences. Taekwondo requires complex motion skills, and the motions are interconnected between one technique to another. So that the learning process of motion technique must be done continuously, progressively, and continuously. In addition, Taekwondo focuses on the strength of the leg when fighting, the stronger the better but the stronger the kick the more power is released, so that the stamina factor becomes very important and often the fighter must start the attack with the strongest attack when fighting to win the fight. In contrast to Pencak Silat that prioritizes agility, speed, and locks. Movements in Pencak Silat are not as difficult as Taekwondo, but in learning the steps must be done continuously so that when fighting our body will move more easily according to the steps. Because they do not give priority to the power, the movements in Pencak Silat are more efficient, such as evasive movement and locking together. In many matches, the lock often becomes the decider to win the game.
In addition, when practicing Taekwondo a lot of terms used by the instructor so it takes more time to be able to understand the meaning of the term used, for example, sijak to start and kalryeo to stop in Taekwondo. In contrast, Pencak silat does not use many terms, that is 8 terms, namely; stance, attitudes and movements, steps, kembangan (improvement move from the steps) , moment, sweeps and cutouts and locks, which will be easier to remember that, than the term in Taekwondo.
White uniform is identical to Taekwondo because white uniform is the clothing for every Taekwondo fighter, while the distinguishing between one fighter and another is the color of the belt because each level wears a belt with different colors. The color levels are white, yellow, green, blue, red and black. Very different from pencak silat the uniform is identical with black color, different from Taekwondo for Pencak Silat fighters are usually not marked with the belt but with the level of skill of each fighter like moment 1 (level 1), moment 2 (level 2) etc. Because Pencak Silat has a different style in each region, there is a style that uses a belt as a sign of every level like Perisai Putih.
So that we seeing from its development, Pencak silat develops slowly than Taekwondo, and it can be concluded that Taekwondo and pencak silat are different. Taekwondo put the strength of the foot while Pencak silat relies on agility and locks. In this case, locking is one of the most profound techniques in a fight, because by locking the opponent, the fighters can complete the battle quickly and effectively, either against 1 or more people. While in Taekwondo that requires energy and stamina can be difficult if you have to fight more than 1 person at the same time.
Nugroho, Agung, et al.“Perkembangan Dan Peranan Taekwondo Dalam Pembinaan Manusia Indonesia” Within Jurnal Olahraga Prestasi. Vol 1 no. 2 2005.
Alim, Abdul, et al. 2007. “ Teknik Dasar Taekwondo” Within Jurnal Olahraga Prestasi. Vol 3 no. 1 2007.
Nugroho, Agung. 2007. “Keterampilan Dasar Pencak Silat Materi Sejara Perkembangan Pencak Silat Go International” FIK UNY, 2007.